0. Please consult your doctor before taking any herb. Cowpea may be used green or as dry fodder. Cowpeas are not only versatile and delicious but also important for human health, offering a number of benefits. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. May I know in general,How much Cowpea sprouts can be used in a day? Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. It also is used as a green manure crop, a nitrogen fixing crop, or for erosion control. All parts of the cowpea crop are used as all are rich in nutrients and fiber. kisancentral-September 23, 2017. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. Cowpea is a mainstay of school lunches in Ghana. Thus most of cowpea use is still restricted to the … Cowpeas are produced in large quantities in Nigeria which account for 66% of world cowpea … [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). They also detoxify the body, promote healthy skin, aid in weight loss, and improve blood circulation. Mud Crab Culture and Fattening Information. [53] Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. Your Name. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. [51] CpTI is the only gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been inserted into a commercially available genetically modified crop. Asparagus growing Information Guide. Speaking further on the GM cowpea, PBR cowpea Programme Manager, Dr Issoufou Kollo commended the farmers making use of the new variety by applying good agronomic practices. [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. The attributes of Cowpea The trading of seeds and processed foods from cowpea provides both urban and rural opportunities for earning regular income. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. [62] This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. Cowpea Uses. Cowpea silage is made by using cowpea leaves mixed with the green leaves of maize or sorghum and then compacting the green matter, covering it with plastic and weighing it down to make it airtight. Susan. You may ask and answer a query. [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Your Query - This is a community service. The stems, leaves, and vines serve as animal feed and are often stored for use during the dry season. Dense residue helps to improve soil texture but breaks down quickly in hot weather. Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. A common snack in Africa is koki or moin-moin, where the cowpeas are mashed into a paste, mixed with spices and steamed in banana leaves. Cowpea, popularly known as blackeye pea, is an important grain legume in South Africa and many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. This makes it a useful living mulch for reconstructing broken-down land. Green Manure Cowpea fixes nitrogen efficiently, with amounts of up to 70 kilograms per hectare per year added to the soil. At its earliest stage, the green cowpeas are relished as a hearty green vegetable dish by people around the … Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. It thrives in poor soils as well and also a drought resistant. [5], M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. [47], Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. Advances in Seed Production technology of Cowpea Dr. T .S . These peas are also used as cattle feed. [12] However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. nutritional value (Ahenkora et al. The whole plant is us… [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. Nigeria has reached a major food security milestone with the commercial release of insect-resistant cowpea — its first genetically modified (GM) food crop. is cultivated widely in the tropics and has multipurpose uses: as food for human beings, fodder for livestock and atmospheric nitrogen fixers. This advice is for educational purpose only. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercroppingwith other crops. What is the disease that you are suffering from. o West Africa produces more than 84% of the African production o Burkina Faso ranks third country in cowpea production (FAOSTAT, 2014) o Cowpea is the first most important grain legume in Burkina … Cowpea is primarily used in the form of dry seeds, fodder, green pod, green manure, and cover crops. [40] While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. Acts as Detoxifier. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. [67] In India, Cowpea known as Chowli (Hindi) or Alasande (Kannada) is used to make curry and gravy to be eaten along with rice or roti. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. https://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Cowpea-Cid1742, [Note: You are requested to write correct English only. The nutrients present in Cow pea make it an essential Herb in relation to Thyroid. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, … Click Here. [58] Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. Please do not use SMS English, Short Text and Words like hi, hello. It is used to make Akara, Moin-Moin, beans and corn porridge; it may be steamed or fried to make a paste or sauce that is often eaten with ugali. [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. Cowpeas also called black eyed peas usually cultivated for its edible beans but few grow it as a vegetable. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. Lowers Bad Cholesterol Levels: The soluble fibre and the levels of proteins in … How true is it that cow peas have a drawing salve effect like G&I according to traditional source use. Your Email I accept the privacy policy. [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. Cowpeas protect soil from erosion, smother weeds and produce 100 to 150 lb. [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. [19][21] Their texture and colour are very diverse. Cowpea, also known as “poor man’s meat,” is an important staple food and source of protein for millions of people in Nigeria and West Africa. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes, mostly grown for its uses as human food and animal feed due to its high nutritious value (Afiukwa et al., 2013). [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. Broccoli Growing Information Guide. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. Other Uses Occasionally, cowpeas are roasted, ground, and served as a coffee substitute. [13][25], Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. Cowpea can be used at all stages of growth as a. vegetable crop, and the leaves contain significant. But cowpea … Cowpeas are very famous in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India since the people staying in this state use it for making various festival dishes. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. Nutritional Uses. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Why did you take Cow Pea leaf ? (IPM CRSP, 2000). [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. Cowpea is mainly used for human and livestock consumption. [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cowpeas (Beans), in general, has polyphenols, which are the … Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Taller, viny types are more vigorous and better suited for use as cover crops. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. Subscribe to Get Post in E-mail. ]. ). Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. Cowpea also known as Vigna unguiculata is a legume of the family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae. Yes, it could possibly be the side effect. Cowpea is an annual herb and is commonly cultivated mainly for its protein-rich seeds. 1993). [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. Are you taking any other medication too ? [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. Jav. [65] Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. The ideal soils are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other crops. Check your mobile for SMS (Didn't get the message, repeat Step 1). Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. Growing Cowpeas – A Beginners Guide. Deficiency of Iodine leads to enlargement of Thyroid Gland and causes Goitre. Avoid use during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. Cowpea grains rich in protein are consumed in different forms in several parts of the tropics. Aghora , Principal Scientist Division of Vegetable Crops Aghora. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Importance of cowpea production cont’d Cowpea is produced in the arid and semi-arid zones. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. Do you know this herb by any other name ? [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. The earliest records of cowpea use date back to Jamaica around 1675, its use in America has been dated back to 1714 around Florida. It is a valuable crop as it is a highly palatable food source and the whole plant can be used as forage for animals. [71] The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. Cowpea production technology 31.10.2018 1. Cowpea is also known as iron beans in Nigeria, and it’s used for various amazing delicacies. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. [24] Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. Cowpea is the most economically important indigenous African legume and most versatile African crop which feeds people, their livestock, the soil and other crops. Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). In many parts of East and Southern Africa, the common perception that beans, cowpeas, and other pulses are ‘poor man’s food’ has also been a major impediment to broader consumption of these grains. It is also known as black-eyed pea or southern pea etc. It is also known as Bachapin Bean, Southern Pea Black Eyed Cowpea, Black Eyed Dolichos, Poona Pea Black-Eyed Pea, Rope Bean Black-Eyed Bean, Red Pea China Bean, Marble Pea, Common Cowpea, Macassar Bean, Cowgram, Cowpea, Kafir Bean, Cultivated African Cowpea… (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". Herb in relation to Thyroid conclusions and describes the implications of the oldest domesticated crops 26! 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